Hosea 13 & Psalm 137-138


Chapter 13

    When Ephraim spoke, there was trembling;
        he was exalted in Israel,
        but he incurred guilt through Baal and died.
    And now they sin more and more,
        and make for themselves metal images,
    idols skillfully made of their silver,
        all of them the work of craftsmen.
    It is said of them,
        “Those who offer human sacrifice kiss calves!”
    Therefore they shall be like the morning mist
        or like the dew that goes early away,
    like the chaff that swirls from the threshing floor
        or like smoke from a window.
    But I am the LORD your God
        from the land of Egypt;
    you know no God but me,
        and besides me there is no savior.
    It was I who knew you in the wilderness,
        in the land of drought;
    but when they had grazed, they became full,
        they were filled, and their heart was lifted up;
        therefore they forgot me.
    So I am to them like a lion;
        like a leopard I will lurk beside the way.
    I will fall upon them like a bear robbed of her cubs;
        I will tear open their breast,
    and there I will devour them like a lion,
        as a wild beast would rip them open.
    He destroys you, O Israel,
        for you are against me, against your helper.
    Where now is your king, to save you in all your cities?
        Where are all your rulers—
    those of whom you said,
        “Give me a king and princes”?
    I gave you a king in my anger,
        and I took him away in my wrath.
    The iniquity of Ephraim is bound up;
        his sin is kept in store.
    The pangs of childbirth come for him,
        but he is an unwise son,
    for at the right time he does not present himself
        at the opening of the womb.
    I shall ransom them from the power of Sheol;
        I shall redeem them from Death.
    O Death, where are your plagues?
        O Sheol, where is your sting?
        Compassion is hidden from my eyes.
    Though he may flourish among his brothers,
        the east wind, the wind of the LORD, shall come,
        rising from the wilderness,
    and his fountain shall dry up;
        his spring shall be parched;
    it shall strip his treasury
        of every precious thing.
     Samaria shall bear her guilt,
        because she has rebelled against her God;
    they shall fall by the sword;
        their little ones shall be dashed in pieces,
        and their pregnant women ripped open.

(Hosea 13 ESV)


Chapter 137

    By the waters of Babylon,
        there we sat down and wept,
        when we remembered Zion.
    On the willows there
        we hung up our lyres.
    For there our captors
        required of us songs,
    and our tormentors, mirth, saying,
        “Sing us one of the songs of Zion!”
    How shall we sing the LORD's song
        in a foreign land?
    If I forget you, O Jerusalem,
        let my right hand forget its skill!
    Let my tongue stick to the roof of my mouth,
        if I do not remember you,
    if I do not set Jerusalem
        above my highest joy!
    Remember, O LORD, against the Edomites
        the day of Jerusalem,
    how they said, “Lay it bare, lay it bare,
        down to its foundations!”
    O daughter of Babylon, doomed to be destroyed,
        blessed shall he be who repays you
        with what you have done to us!
    Blessed shall he be who takes your little ones
        and dashes them against the rock!

(Psalm 137 ESV)


Chapter 138

Of David.

    I give you thanks, O LORD, with my whole heart;
        before the gods I sing your praise;
    I bow down toward your holy temple
        and give thanks to your name for your steadfast love and your faithfulness,
        for you have exalted above all things
        your name and your word.
    On the day I called, you answered me;
        my strength of soul you increased.
    All the kings of the earth shall give you thanks, O LORD,
        for they have heard the words of your mouth,
    and they shall sing of the ways of the LORD,
        for great is the glory of the LORD.
    For though the LORD is high, he regards the lowly,
        but the haughty he knows from afar.
    Though I walk in the midst of trouble,
        you preserve my life;
    you stretch out your hand against the wrath of my enemies,
        and your right hand delivers me.
    The LORD will fulfill his purpose for me;
        your steadfast love, O LORD, endures forever.
        Do not forsake the work of your hands.

(Psalm 138 ESV)

For the Love of God

D.A. Carson


IT IS APPROPRIATE THAT Hosea 13 should be read in conjunction with Psalm 137. Hosea 13 brings the prophet’s promises of judgment to their climax. God is going to destroy proud Samaria (Ephraim). Similar warnings were repeatedly thundered against Judah, but they showed no sign of repentance. In 587 B.C., God destroyed Jerusalem and the last great wave of people were transported into exile. Here in Psalm 137, the captives from that catastrophe voice their utter despair, and almost all of their focus is on the secondary agents — their captors, the Edomites, the peo- ple of Babylon. And both perspectives are valid and complementary.

Here I shall reflect on the four sections of Psalm 137.

(1) The first (137:1-3) is so vivid it sounds like eyewitness recollection. A relief from the Assyrian palace of Sennacherib in Nineveh pictures three prisoners of war playing their lyres while a soldier marches them along; doubtless this also happened in Babylon. The “rivers of Babylon” was a system of canals connected with the Tigris and Euphrates river systems. The “harps” (lyres) were instruments of joy. In the symbolic language of Revelation 5, when the lion who is also the lamb takes the scroll from the right hand of the Almighty, signaling that he is worthy to open the scroll and bring about all of God’s purposes in blessing and judgment, all the “harps” break out; it is a moment of ineffable joy, the opposite of this paragraph.

(2) But the exiles refuse to sing (137:4-6). All of the associations of the songs of the Lord are tied to Jerusalem and the temple. For them, their staunch refusal, even to their tormenting captors, was a sign not only of pathos and heartbreak (v. 4) but also of passion and fidelity (vv. 5-6).

(3) The Edomites had obviously delighted in the destruction of Jerusalem and perhaps helped it along. On this point the prophet Ezekiel has more to say (Ezek. 35; see meditation for October 2). God hates smugness and a vengeful spirit. The judgment on Jerusalem came, ultimately, from God — but he would also judge those who delighted in and contributed to Jerusalem’s fall. One of the ugliest recent evidences of that smug vengefulness within the ranks of professing evangelicalism was the slogan “no tears for queers” after a young gay man had been beaten to death.

(4) At the end of a siege, victorious soldiers might pick up small children by their ankles and kill them by bashing their heads against a wall. What such barbarism demands, strictly speaking, for justice to prevail, is similar suffering. These white-hot lines are not cool policy statements, but the searing cries of moral indignation. We must hear the anguish, before we also hear God insisting that vengeance is his (Rom. 12:19).